Archived - Rural Francophone communities in Saskatchewan

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Rural Francophone communities in Saskatchewan

Introduction

This document presents the results of research conducted in fall 2008 and winter 2009 in the Saskatchewan Francophone community. Conducted by the Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages, this research is the third phase of a multi-year action-research project aimed at better understanding the practical aspects of assessing community vitality. The first phase was carried out in 2006 with three Francophone communities in urban settings, and the second in 2007 with three English-speaking communities in Quebec.

This report consists of four sections. Section 1 describes the context of the study and the methodology used. Section 2 sets out a brief profile of the Saskatchewan Francophone community. Section 3 gives an overview of the various best practices in the community. Section 4 presents logic model and indicators produced and validated by the task force and retained by the research team. It also provides data sources that can be used to verify these indicators. Finally, Section 5 presents the conclusion of the report. Following the conclusion are a list of documents consulted (Appendix A) and a list of task force members (Appendix B).

1. Methodology

In carrying out the mandate provided by the Office of the Commissioner, the research team followed a step-by-step methodology similar to that used in previous phases. This methodology was designed to ensure optimal participation of the communities selected, in an effort to focus on the opinions and aspirations of these communities while helping to strengthen their capacities for planning and for evaluating community vitality. The methodology has also been refined based on lessons learned in the previous two phases.

In cooperation with the Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise (ACF), leaders of the Saskatchewan Francophone community (the steering committee) were first selected and consulted to support the consultants' work and to establish the general directions of the study. The steering committee determined the community to be studied, priority sectors and other research criteria. It was agreed that the study would look at the region encompassing Duck Lake, St. Louis, Domremy, Hoey and St. Isidore-de-Bellevue.Footnote 1 These rural communities have the advantage of being located fairly close to one another.

This region is currently part of an overall development initiative entitled “Projet d'alternative de développement rural : le terroir” (referred to as the Projet du terroir). In order to adapt the Office of the Commissioner's study as closely as possible to Saskatchewan rural reality, the steering committee wanted to connect this research to the Projet du terroir.

With the help of the steering committee, a task force was set up, consisting of community leaders and key stakeholders from different sectors in the region. This group of approximately 15 individuals held meetings in the winter of 2009, during which it established the expectations for the Projet du terroir and expressed them in the form of a logic model. The task force then chose indicators to measure the achievement of anticipated results and discussed data sources that could be used in this community evaluation. The group also established a certain number of best practices recognized by the community.

This report was developed based on this work and on the collection and analysis of other pertinent documents and information on the Francophone community of the region encompassing Duck Lake, St. Louis, Domremy, Hoey and St. Isidore-de-Bellevue.

2. Community profile for the region encompassing St. Isidore-de-Bellevue, Duck Lake, Domremy, St. Louis and Hoey

2.1. PopulationFootnote 2

2.1.1. HistoryFootnote 3

Saskatchewan's Francophone community has its roots in large expeditions organized as far back as 1731 by Pierre Gauthier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye. Attracted by the beaver trade and driven by a quest for treasure, the route to the Orient and missionary work, the first French colonists established their first permanent settlements at Fort-à-la-Corne and Île-à-la-Crosse.

A large number of coureurs de bois, voyageurs and explorers from the St. Lawrence valley continued to settle in the West during the 18th and 19th centuries. Marriages between French men and Native women gave birth to the Métis nation, a unique Francophone population in Western Canada.

Toward the end of the 19th century, the Canadian government launched a major initiative to colonize the West, giving this region a new Francophone population made up of Europeans, Franco-Americans and French Canadians. Deliberately dispersed by the authorities of the time, this population primarily took root in areas that were favourable to agriculture. A hundred or so small French-Canadian towns appeared, carrying on a tradition of Catholic institutions and community life.

Little by little, the arrival of immigrants reduced the demographic weight of Francophones in the province. In the early 20th century, the Fransaskois community began a long battle to ensure the survival of the French language and to preserve its identity. In 1912, it created a representative association that, over the years, would become the Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise (ACF). This association still mobilizes vital forces throughout the province to promote the development of Saskatchewan's Francophone community.

The communities examined in this study are part of three distinct rural municipalities: St. Louis, Hoodoo and Duck Lake. Geographically, these communities are located approximately 100 km northeast of Saskatoon and approximately 50 km southeast of Prince Albert. They are the main centres serving neighbouring rural communities.

2.1.2. Demographics

Overall, the population in these rural municipalities dropped by 8.3% between 2001 and 2006, from 2,800 to 2,586 people. In 2006, 550 inhabitants declared FrenchFootnote 4 as their mother tongue, which represents approximately 21.2% of the population. When the number of people who declared both English and French as their mother tongues in 2006 are added, the number of Francophones rises by a mere 15 people, to approximately 565.

Table 2: Basic demographic data
  St. Louis Hoodoo Duck Lake Total
Total Population 2006 1,006 804 776 2,586
Total Population 2001 1,154 701 945 2,800
Variation (%) -12.8 14.7 -17.9 -8.3
Population whose mother tongue is French (2006) 435 35 80 550
Proportion (%) 43.2 4.3 10.3 21.2

2.1.3. Language

Examining the population according to different linguistic variables sheds light on the presence of French in the lives of individuals living in the region.

Table 3: Knowledge and use of French
    St. Louis Hoodoo Duck Lake Total
Total population 2006   1,006 804 776 2,586
Individuals with knowledge of both official languages (N.) 535 50 115 700
(%) 53 6 15 27
Individuals who speak French most often at home (N.) 245 0 25 270
(%) 24 0 3.2 10.4
Population 15 and older who speak French most often at work (N.) 105 0 0 105
(%) 16.4 0 0 6.3

According to 2006 Census data, in this rural region of Saskatchewan, 700 individuals know both official languages, which represents approximately 27% of the total population. However, only 270 individuals (10.4%) stated that French is the language spoken most often at home. It should be added that a high majority of the regional population (83.5%) stated that English is the language spoken most often at home and 2.3% stated that they speak a non-official language.

With respect to language of work, only 6.3% of individuals 15 and older stated that they speak French most often at work.

2.1.4. Age

The median age of the regional population ranges from 44 to 48.3. This is higher than the median age for the population of the province of Saskatchewan as a whole, which is 38.7. The communities also have a higher percentage of individuals aged 15 and older than the province as a whole. The only exception is the community of St. Louis, where 80.1% of the population is over 15, compared to 80.6% for the province as a whole.

Table 4: Age of the population
  St. Louis Hoodoo Duck Lake Saskatchewan
Median age 44 48.3 44.8 38.7
Population aged 15 or older (%) 80.1 86.3 81.9 80.6

2.1.5. Socioeconomic conditions

According to Statistics Canada, education levels in the regions being studied are quite similar to those of Saskatchewan's overall population. For example, in both cases, approximately 30% of the population does not have a secondary school diploma, while 26.2% has a secondary school diploma or equivalent. However, in the rural regions being studied, only 8.7% of the population has a university degree, as compared to nearly 13% for the province's population as a whole.

Moreover, median revenues for residents in the regions studied vary from $18,401 to $23,015. On the whole, these revenue levels are slightly lower than the median revenue for the entire population, which is approximately $23,755.

2.2. Projet du terroir

The Projet du terroir is a rural development project that consists of promoting regional agriculture, culture and heritage through the concept of terroir. It was conceived by the ACF and the Institut français at the University of Regina in response to the major challenges faced by rural regions of Saskatchewan: outward migration, aging of the population and a reduction in the number of small agricultural producers. The project initiators wanted to boost the community's vitality through a terroir approach.

During UNESCO's “Planète Terroirs” international meeting in Paris in 2005, the following definition was proposed and validated:Footnote 5 “A Terroir is a determined geographical area, defined by a human community, which generates and accumulates along its history a set of distinctive cultural traits, knowledge and practices based on a system of interactions between the natural environment and human factors. The know-how involved carries originality, confers its typical nature, and enables recognition of the goods and services originating from this specific geographical area and thus of the people living within it. These areas are living and innovative spaces which are more than just about tradition.”Footnote 6

In Saskatchewan, the project proposes recognition of the region's living heritage and products through consideration of the environment, culture, knowledge and know-how found in a rural setting, particularly one with a Francophone culture.

The project initiators chose the region encompassing St. Isidore-de-Bellevue, St. Louis, Domremy, Hoey and Duck Lake as the project site due to its high concentration of Francophones, resources, authenticity, heritage and vitality.

The Projet du terroir is continuing to move toward its objectives, which can be broken down into four main themes: collaborative economics, identity and a sense of belonging, demography and migration, and intercultural dialogue.Footnote 7

2.2.1. Collaborative economics

The Projet du terroir seeks to create conditions that are conducive to collaboration between stakeholders in the agri-food chain. It is hoped that these collaborations will lead to the creation of jobs that strengthen the region's French presence and Francophone identity. Communities believe that a strong and vital rural economy is achieved by recognizing local cultures and products and by revitalizing the agricultural sector (production, processing and commercialization). A strong and prosperous rural economy requires sufficient infrastructures and a qualified workforce. This kind of economy is also defined by the degree to which it attracts tourists and residents of urban centres.

2.2.2. Identity and sense of belonging

With regard to the preceding paragraph, the communities are hoping that the Projet du terroir will result in a strong sense of pride and solidarity within the population. By collaborating and developing projects such as economuseums, agritourism and terroir interpretive centres, communities will be recognizing their shared heritage. Such initiatives will help to project a more powerful image of Francophone communities and improve the image that citizens have of themselves.

2.2.3. Demography and migration

Fransaskois communities that participated in the study believe that the Projet du terroir could inject greater vitality from a demographic perspective. It could be said that the Projet du terroir will be considered a success once it has helped to slow down and reverse problems related to outward migration and aging of the population. The project will create regional jobs, recognize the farming profession, promote quality of life in a rural setting and intervene strategically with youth.

2.2.4. Intercultural dialogue

Given their geographic and sociolinguistic situation, rural communities in Saskatchewan believe that intercultural dialogue plays an increasingly important role in strengthening their identity and economy. The Projet du terroir is an opportunity to build bridges and create new connections with Aboriginal and Anglophone communities.

2.3. Community resources

Francophones in the region encompassing St. Isidorede-Bellevue, St. Louis, Domremy, Hoey and Duck Lake are part of the greater Fransaskois family and its leading organization, the ACF. The area is also one of the 12 electoral districts of the ACF. These districts are based on the division of the provincial electoral map. In keeping with the ACF's governance structure, individuals in the area may elect their community representative.

The territory is rich in historic milestones. It includes Batoche, the site of the final battle of the Métis uprising in 1885, Fort Carlton Provincial Park, Duck Lake Regional Interpretive Centre and the bison antiquus that symbolizes St. Louis. The region has a fairly successful tourist industry, thanks largely to its recreational activities and its proximity to highways linking Saskatoon and Prince Albert. Many volunteer groups, most dedicated to culture, do work in the region. The list below presents the main services and community resources.

Local organizations

  • Centre francophone BDS Inc. (new organization created by the merging of the Association culturelle de Bellevue, the Association culturelle Coeur-franc de St. Louis and the Centre fransaskois de Domremy)
  • Archives de Bellevue
  • St. Louis Historical Society
  • Amis de Batoche
  • Dizaines for Batoche Development Co-operative Ltd.

Services and other resources

  • Tourist information centre
  • St. Isidore School
  • Foyer Jésus Marie (seniors' home)
  • Bed and breakfast chez Tina
  • Community newsletters
  • St. Laurent Pilgrimage
  • Pioneer Park (St. Louis)
  • L'Eau vive (weekly newspaper)
  • Scenic routes
  • Service Canada Centre
  • Camping grounds

Provincial associations with local branches

  • Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise
  • Association des parents fransaskois
  • Association jeunesse fransaskoise
  • Conseil de la Coopération de la Saskatchewan
  • Conseil culturel fransaskois
  • Fédération des aînés fransaskois

Other organizations or programs that support the Projet du terroir

  • University of Regina (Institut français)
  • Batoche National Historic Park
  • Prince Albert National Park of Canada
  • Bellevue Hamlet Board
  • Rural municipality of St. Louis No. 431
  • Town of Duck Lake
  • Canada Research Chair in Rural Development (Université du Québec à Rimouski)
  • UNESCO Chair – Université Laval
  • Centre local de développement of the Charlevoix regional county municipality
  • Midi-Pyrénées region (France)

3. Best practices

This section describes what are perceived as best practices in the Francophone community in the region encompassing St. Isidore-de-Bellevue, Duck Lake, Domremy, St. Louis and Hoey. These practices were identified during discussions among the task force participants and then between the task force and the research team.

3.1. Multilingual community newsletter

To facilitate intercultural dialogue, the Francophone community of Domremy publishes a community newsletter in three languages: French, English and Métis. According to the comments received, this initiative has helped to bring these communities closer together.

3.2. Multicultural gatherings

The Saskatchewan Archeological Society organizes an annual event at the South Branch archeological site, a former fur trading post for the Hudson's Bay Company. At this event, participants move to the lively beat of fiddlers and carry out archeological digs. On the menu: bannock (flatbread) and grilled bear meat. The goal of the event is to bring together the Métis, Aboriginal People, Anglophones and Francophones in a celebration of their shared regional heritage. In 2008, the event drew together close to 200 people.

Every year, the Saskatchewan Historical Society holds Heritage Days. In September 2009, the event was organized jointly with the Town of Duck Lake, and its theme was the arrival of the pioneers. The activity, which took place in English and French, included 20 or so interactive and historical sketches. Visitors learned about the history of the Association Catholique Franco-Canadienne (now the Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise) and about the Patriote de l'Ouest newspaper, and were introduced to local historical figures.

3.3. Regional tourism

Over the past few years, the St. Louis Historical Society has been designing maps that show all of the historical sites of interest along the Saskatchewan River. Thirty sites have been identified, encouraging tourists to explore the region by canoe or a guided boat tour.

3.4. Terroir conference

In February 2009, the Institut français of the University of Regina and the ACF organized a conference entitled Terroir, Identity & Seduction, which encouraged participants to reflect on the source of food products. Government representatives, researchers, entrepreneurs, farmers and consumers got together and discussed the many advantages of redirecting rural development. They attended workshops presented by experts from all across Canada, as well as from France and Louisiana, on topics such as organic gardening, food supply and culture, rural development in Saskatchewan, organic meat, farm tourism and economuseums. The event also provided the organizers with an opportunity to reaffirm their ties to other communities that have launched similar initiatives, such as Charlevoix, Quebec.

3.5. Mobilization of communities around projects of common interest

Until recently, the communities of St. Isidore-de-Bellevue, St. Louis and Domremy managed their communities' cultural spaces separately. Cultural activities in these three communities were recently combined, thanks to the creation of a new organization. The Centre francophone Bellevue, Domremy et St. Louis (BDS) now manages the Centre culturel de Bellevue and the Centre fransaskois de Domremy.

It is expected that the new organization will be able to address common issues, such as improvement of road infrastructures. It is also expected that combined management of cultural activities will reduce duplication of effort and competition between the activities, and will give more weight to the community in its search for partners and sources of funding. This emerging community collaboration will no doubt benefit the Projet du terroir.

Each year, the town of Domremy organizes summer camps for the local youth. These day camps offer activities in French, such as crafts, reading and swimming.

Communities in the region are also working together on a daycare project. According to the project's sponsors, lack of access to daycare services could discourage new families from moving to the region.

3.6. Study on the Projet du terroir

In the summer of 2008, an intern working with the Institut français of the University of Regina led a broad study on the Projet du terroir. She focused on the following questions: How are the current culinary practices of the three cultural groups (Francophones, Anglophones, Métis) a reflection of the region's history? Why and how are culinary practices passed on from one group to another? To what degree do these practices reflect the respective identities of these groups? What specific practices are associated with each of these groups?

The study therefore sought to clarify the link between food and culture and the different connections that these three groups have with their food. The study also attempted to define strategies for accentuating these cultures through the products identified in their terroir.

4. Logic model and vitality indicators

This section presents an overview of the expectations and priorities established by the task force, which built and validated a comprehensive logic model for the Projet du terroir. It sets out the following:

  • the logic model;
  • indicators for the targeted results;
  • data sources to be used to evaluate these results.

A logic model is an illustration of the sequence of expected results and efforts made to create or maintain vitality in a given field or sector of a community.

4.1. Fields of activity

4.1.1. Intercultural cooperation

According to the rural Francophone communities in the region being studied, greater community vitality is achieved through connections with the Métis, Aboriginal and Anglophone communities. The Projet du terroir is a means of fostering dialogue and strengthening ties between these communities. This is why Francophone communities are interested in implementing mechanisms such as committees and multicultural discussion groups, as well as an intercultural forum.

4.1.2. Research and planning

The Projet du terroir is a comprehensive development initiative that brings together stakeholders from the community, the government and the private sector. To ensure that the project has a solid foundation and to boost the capacity of community leaders, the region's Francophone community wishes to pursue research and planning activities. Some of these activities have already begun, including exploratory visits and a symposium on the concept of terroir. It should be added that the community is placing a lot of faith in the impending community leaders committee to ensure that the project is put in place. This committee will be tasked with guiding the project as a whole, and will serve as the primary resource for collaborative efforts and partnerships.

4.1.3. Gatherings and celebrations

For the community, gatherings and celebrations are concrete ways of developing identity and a sense of belonging, in addition to promoting greater community bonding. The community hopes to take advantage of existing events to promote terroir products and, at the same time, help the population to become more aware of its consumption habits. The community is also hoping to introduce new events, such as a food-tasting festival, to celebrate the region's gastronomic creations and the professions linked to the agri-food chain.

4.1.4. Internal marketing and persuasion

The Projet du terroir offers many stakeholders a new way of thinking and acting. It aims to promote greater appreciation of professions that are linked to the agrifood chain. It also seeks to establish a greater sense of collaboration and interdependance between stakeholders, particularly producers and processors of food products. For instance, this interdependance could mean increased collaboration between a wheat producer and a baker or between a grain producer and a poultry producer. However, this change in attitude and behaviour cannot be achieved without a joint effort that targets awareness, training and skills development in areas such as marketing of heritage-related products.

4.1.5. External marketing and persuasion

The community believes that it is important to promote its historic attractions, along with its products, services and quality of life, to the outside world. To do this, the community wants to show itself in the best possible light. It plans to use many different tools, including an external marketing plan, a distinctive trademark, an interpretive centre, tours and a Web site. The community also plans to focus on initiatives such as programs based on the community-supported agriculture model, and to have the area designated as a reserve under UNESCO's Man and Biosphere Program. This designation would help to support the introduction of new sustainable development practices.

In the medium term, all of these activities will help to create a greater sense of community among the different cultural groups; further mobilize Projet du terroir stakeholders; increase cohesiveness among the various Francophone communities; produce a terroir and local know-how that are more highly appreciated by consumers; increase entrepreneurial spirit and collaboration between farmers and processors (existing and new); and boost regional tourism and the number of new families that settle in the region.

In the long term, if all of these results are achieved, the community will experience greater vitality.

Logic model: Projet du terroir
Logic model of Projet du terroir. Description follows.
Description – Logic model: Projet du terroir
Table 5: Indicators and data sources – Projet du terroir
Expected Results Indicators Data Sources
1. Desire and interest of the different cultural groups in the region to better understand one another and work together a) Cultural diversity of those participating in various activities a) Counts; record of activities
b) Number of jointly organized activities b) Record of activities
c) Citizens' views of their desire and interest in working together c) Survey
2. Increased capacity of leaders for terroir development a) Leaders' views of their own capacity with respect to terroir a) Interviews
b) Number of partnerships with other regions (e.g. Charlevoix, France) b) Counts
3. Desire and interest of Francophone communities to better understand one another and work together a) Degree of sense of belonging to the region a) Survey
b) Participation in festivals and regional events b) Record of festivals and events
4. Citizens' awareness of their consumption patterns a) Percentage of the population that feels it is important to buy local products a) Consumer survey
5. Appreciation by citizens (including youth) of professions linked to the agri-food chain a) Perception held by the region's citizens of professions related to the agri-food chain a) Survey
b) Percentage of Francophone youth who would consider a career in a profession linked to the agri-food chain b) Data from guidance counsellors at Fransaskois schools
c) Number of young people registered in programs related to the agri-food sector c) Records from training institutions
6. Increased capacity of producers and processors to collaborate and bring local products to market a) Percentage of producers and processors who claim to have the necessary skills a) Survey
b) Number of participants registered in training and support programs b) Registration records
7. Public awareness of the region's heritage attractions, products, services and quality of life a) Number of media reports pertaining to the region a) Media logs
b) Number of visits to Web sites pertaining to the region (e.g. terroir, Parks Canada) b) Statistics from Webmasters
c) Degree of knowledge of Saskatchewan's overall population about heritage attractions and quality of life in the region c) Survey
8. Greater sense of community among the different cultural groups a) Number of collaborations and partnerships a) Counts
b) Participants' degree of satisfaction and comfort with joint activities b) Counts and interviews
c) Degree to which stakeholders and the regional population adopt the project c) Interviews and survey
9. Increased mobilization of Projet du terroir stakeholders a) Number of committees created and operating a) Counts
b) Number of people present at public meetings on the Projet du terroir b) Record of public meetings
c) Number of projects initiated within the framework of the Projet du terroir c) Counts
10. Greater sense of community among the various Francophone communities a) Number of projects shared between stakeholders in different Francophone communities a) Counts
b) Volunteers' degree of involvement and diversity of Francophone volunteers b) Community organizations' records
c) Degree of trust shown by citizens towards members of other communities c) Regional survey
11. Consumer appreciation of terroir products and local know-how a) Demand for terroir products a) Surveys for businesses
b) Degree of customer loyalty b) Ibid.
c) Local consumers' view of terroir products c) Consumer survey
12. Increased entrepreneurial spirit and collaboration among farmers, producers and processors (existing and new) a) Number of individuals who develop and market terroir products a) Counts
b) Number of business partnerships between farmers and producers in the region b) Survey for businesses
c) Number of economuseums and agritourism activities c) Counts
13. Boost in regional tourism a) Number of tourists a) Statistics from government and from tourism office
b) Revenue linked to tourism b) Government statistics
c) Amount of hospitality services (e.g. accommodations, restaurants) c) Counts
14. Increase in the number of new families settling in the region a) Number of new Francophone families settling in the region a) Counts; government statistics
b) Number of new homes being built b) Ibid.
c) Number of children enrolled in French school c) School records
15. Greater community vitality a) Municipalities' openness to diversity and bilingualism a) Municipalities' policies
b) Number of bilingual signs and materials b) Counts
c) Views of citizens in the region of their identity, sense of belonging and pride c) Citizen survey
d) Net migration of the Francophone population d) Government statistics
e) Percentage of newcomers who speak French e) Ibid.

Conclusion

This study sought to gather and systematically document information on development initiatives in the large area encompassing Duck Lake, St. Louis, Domremy, Hoey and St. Isidore-de-Bellevue, rural communities in Saskatchewan with a concentration of Francophones.

The study first served to rally the communities around a common project and to develop a clearer vision and understanding of the Projet du terroir. The meetings helped stakeholders from the various towns to get to know one another and to integrate the idea that the community's vitality will only be achieved through a greater collaborative effort.

Second, the conceptual framework of the study assisted in gathering and organizing planning elements for the Projet du terroir in a coherent fashion. Stakeholders had to examine the Projet du terroir from a specific approach: the theory of results-based management. This approach appeared to be relevant and useful in giving meaning to the project. According to some stakeholders, the exercise helped them to understand the importance of investing in the Projet du terroir.

Third, the study succeeded in producing quantitative and qualitative indicators. The community now has basic tools for assessing its vitality in comparison with desired results and for meeting its partners' accountability requirements. That being said, the community will no doubt need support to strengthen its evaluative capacities, in terms of both financial and human resources.

The study also helped in identifying issues and challenges specific to a Francophone community in a rural setting. Francophones living in rural Saskatchewan have to deal with exodus towards urban centres, aging of the population and a drop in the number of small agricultural producers and processors. In response, the community has chosen to focus on its terroir—in other words, its distinctive cultural traits, its know-how and its unique products such as bison products, Gravelbourg mustard, peas from Bellevue, Red Fife wheat, Saskatoon berries, wild rice from northern Saskatchewan and more. For Saskatchewan's rural Francophone community, community vitality and the strengthening of identity are intrinsically linked. For this community, culture and heritage are both the be-all and end-all of vitality.

Finally, federal institutions, which are required to implement positive measures to support the development of official language communities, will no doubt find this document to be an important source of information. They will be able to use this report to focus more closely on the particularities of the rural Fransaskois community and come up with positive measures that are adapted to its reality.

Appendix A - Bibliography and documents consulted

Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise (ACF). Développement du Terroir : Projet d'alternatif de développement rural, ACF, Régina, 12 p.

Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise (ACF). Guide de gestion et de responsabilisation, document accompanying the Plan de développement global de la communauté fransaskoise 2004-2009, ACF, Regina, 2003, 37 p.

Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise (ACF). Plan de développement global de la communauté fransaskoise 2004-2009, ACF, Regina, 2003, 25 p.

Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise (ACF). Portrait Fransaskois, ACF, Saskatchewan, 2002, 28 p.

Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise (ACF). Pour le développement et l'épanouissement de la communauté fransaskoise, ACF, Régina, 2007, 13 p.

Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise (ACF). Évaluation du Plan de développement global 2004-2009 de la communauté fransaskoise et élaboration du prochain PDG 2009-2014, ACF, Regina, 12 p.

Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise (ACF). Rapport annuel 2005-2006, ACF, Regina, 2006, 35 p.

Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise (ACF). Rapport annuel 2006-2007, ACF, Regina, 2007, 8 p.

Fédération des communautés francophones et acadienne (FCFA). Francophone Community Profile of Saskatchewan, FCFA, Ottawa, 2004, on-line version consulted June 30, 2009.

Guimond, Laurie. Les communautés francophones de Saint-Louis, Domrémy et St-Isidore-de-Bellevue : entre localité et centralisation, Rapport sur la vitalité des communautés francophones, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, June 2005, on-line version consulted June 30, 2009.

Statistics Canada. 2006 Community Profiles, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 92-591-XWE, on-line version consulted August 20, 2009.

Appendix B - List of task force members

Henri Gareau, representative for the rural municipality of St. Louis no. 431

Rose-Marie Carey, President, Association culturelle Coeurfranc de St. Louis

Rita Denis, Vice President, Centre communautaire fransaskois de Domremy, and farmer

Evelyn Gaudet, Member, Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise and resident of St. Isidore-de-Bellevue

Jos Poirier, Member, Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise, and person responsible for rural development

Donald Perrault, Agronomist, Province of Saskatchewan

Cécile Leblanc-Turner, Business Advisor, Conseil de la Coopération de la Saskatchewan

Lynne Girardin, Master's student in agriculture, with specialization in cattle production and economics, Department of Animal and Poultry Sciences, University of Saskatchewan

Alice Gaudet, Community Development Officer, Centre francophone BDS Inc., St. Isidore-de-Bellevue

Frédéric Dupré, Institut français, University of Regina

Gérald Gareau, Business Advisor, Conseil de la Coopération de la Saskatchewan

Lise Gareau, Coordinator, regional Fransaskois organization bridging project

Josée Bourgoin, Coordinator, Terroir Interpretation and Development, Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise

Joanne Perreault, Associate Director, Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise

Éric Lefol, Research Professional, Institut français, University of Regina

Denis Desgagné, Executive Director, Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise

Representatives of the Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages

Jennifer Wessner, Liaison Officer, Regina

Martine Boucher, Policy Analyst, Ottawa

The members of the task force participated as individuals and the views expressed do not necessarily represent those of their employers or host organizations.

Michel Desjardins, President of the Consortia Development Group, facilitated the task force. He was assisted in the first session by Agathe Gaulin, an associate with this firm.

Footnotes

Footnote 1

In the context of an inter-university research project on the geographic factors pertaining to development and to vitality conditions for Francophone minority communities, the University of Ottawa published, in 2005, a report on the vitality of the Francophone communities of St. Louis, Domremy and St. Isidore-de-Bellevue. For more information on this report (available in French only), please consult the Web site.

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Footnote 2

The statistics presented in the following section were drawn or compiled from 2006 community profiles prepared by Statistics Canada for the rural municipalities of St. Louis (RM431), Hoodoo (RM401) and Duck Lake (RM463). It should be noted that the rural municipality of St. Louis also includes the communities of St. Isidore-de-Bellevue, Domremy and Hoey. The references for these profiles are the following: St. Louis rural municipality: Statistics Canada, St. Louis No. 431, Saskatchewan (table), 2006 Community Profiles, 2006 Census, product no. 92-591-XWE in the Statistics Canada catalogue, Ottawa, 2007, on-line version consulted November 17, 2009.

Hoodoo rural municipality: Statistics Canada, Hoodoo No. 401, Saskatchewan (table), 2006 Community Profiles, 2006 Census, product no. 92-591-XWE in the Statistics Canada catalogue, Ottawa, 2007, on-line version consulted November 17, 2009.

Duck Lake rural municipality: Statistics Canada, Duck Lake No. 463, Saskatchewan (table), 2006 Community Profiles, 2006 Census, product no. 92-591-XWE in the Statistics Canada catalogue, Ottawa, 2007, on-line version consulted November 17, 2009.

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Footnote 3

Assemblée communautaire fransaskoise, Portrait fransaskois, ACF, Saskatchewan, 2002, 27 p.

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Footnote 4

For the past few years, there has been a growing interest in research of definitions of the Francophone population that reflect the diversity and complexity of the Canadian Francophonie. Efforts in this area have been undertaken at the federal, provincial and university levels. For example, the Government of Ontario recently introduced a new definition of the province's Francophone population. This new definition counts those whose mother tongue is neither French nor English, but who know French and speak it at home. Further information can be found on the Office of Francophone Affairs Web site.

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Footnote 5

This definition of “terroir” is the product of a collaboration between the Institut national de la recherche agronomique and the Institut National des Appellations d'Origine (re-named Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité in 2007).

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Footnote 6

UNESCO, A Project for the Terroirs Around the World, information materials for the UNESCO 34th General Conference, October 16-November 3, 2007, 10 p.

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Footnote 7

As will be seen later, these themes are implicit in the Projet du terroir logic model.

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