Portrait of Official Languages Groups in the Gatineau Area

Data sources

The data and analysis in this report were prepared by Statistics Canada in June 2014 at the request of the Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages. The Office of the Commissioner would like to thank Jean-Pierre Corbeil, Brigitte Chavez and Jean-François Lepage of the Language Statistics Section of the Social and Aboriginal Statistics Division for their diligent work and invaluable contribution.

This portrait of language groups in Gatineau presents information taken from the Canadian censuses of 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011 and from the 2011 National Household Survey.

Information from the 2011 Census of Population is based on data collected from 100% of Canadian households, while information from the previous censuses is based on data collected on a 20% random sample basis.

Comparability of language data between censuses of population

For the first time in 2011, three language questions (knowledge of official languages, language spoken at home and mother tongue) were included on the census questionnaire that was administered to 100% of the population.

Language data and analysis published for all censuses since 1996 have been based almost exclusively on responses from the long-form census questionnaire administered to 20% of the population.

All trend analyses presented in this report compare 2011 Census data to previous long-form census data.

Evaluation of data on the knowledge of official languages and the first official language spoken indicates that these data are comparable to those of previous censuses.

However, Statistics Canada has observed changes in patterns of response to both the mother tongue and home language questions that appear to have arisen from changes in the placement and context of the language questions on the 2011 Census questionnaire relative to previous censuses. As a result, Canadians appear to have been less inclined than in previous censuses to report languages other than English or French as their only mother tongue, and also more inclined to report multiple languages as their mother tongue and as the language used most often at home.

It is not uncommon in survey research to observe changes in response patterns due to changes to a questionnaire and most particularly due to changes in the context in which the question is embedded.

Data users are advised to exercise caution when evaluating trends related to mother tongue and language spoken at home that compare 2011 Census data to that of previous censuses.

In the case of the mother tongue data, comparisons other than those done in the current analysis are possible depending on the needs of the user, given that mother tongue was asked on both the short and long-form questionnaires in previous censuses. Users should take into account the advantages as well as the limitations of each dataset.

Readers will find a complete analysis of factors affecting comparability of language results between the censuses in the publication, Methodological Document on the 2011 Census Language Data, Catalogue no. 98-314-XWE2011051.

This document presents a general portrait of language groups in the Gatineau area. The first section describes how the language groups have changed from 1981 to 2011, based on mother tongue, first official language spoken, knowledge of official languages and language spoken at home. The second section presents socio-demographic data on Gatineau’s two language communities, including data on education, income and employment. Sections three and four look at language groups in Gatineau neighbourhoods and in the census areas around Gatineau, respectively.

1. Language groups between 1981 and 2011 (census data, 1981 to 2011)

1.1. Mother tongue

1.1.1. Population by mother tongue in 2011

In 2011, French was the mother tongue of a large majority (78.4%) of Gatineau’s population. The percentages of the population whose mother tongue was English and whose mother tongue was neither English nor French were lower, at 12.0% and 9.5% respectively (see Table 1).Footnote 1

 
Table 1: Population by mother tongue, Gatineau census division, 2011
Mother tongue Number Percentage
Total population 263,260 100.0
English as mother tongue 31,685 12.0
French as mother tongue 206,495 78.4
Other languages as mother tongue 25,080 9.5
 

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

1.1.2. Population by mother tongue

The overall population of Gatineau increased by 58.5% between 1981 and 2011, from just over 166,000 to over 263,000 (see Tables Table 2 and Table 3).

The number of people whose mother tongue was French increased by 48.0% between 1981 and 2011, totalling 206,500 in 2011. The number of people in Gatineau whose mother tongue was English increased by almost the same amount (46.5%), reaching 31,700 in 2011. In contrast, the number of people in Gatineau whose mother tongue was neither English nor French more than quintupled (408.2%), reaching 25,100 in 2011.

 
Table 2: Population growth rates by mother tongue, Gatineau census division, 1981 to 2011
Mother tongue Growth rate (%)
Total growth 58.5
English as mother tongue 46.5
French as mother tongue 48.0
Other languages as mother tongue 408.2
 

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Gatineau census division data from the 1981 Census corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981 and 2011 censuses

 
 
Table 3: Population by mother tongue, Gatineau census division, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011
Year Total English as mother tongue French as mother tongue Other languages as mother tongue
Number Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage
1981 166,115 21,625 13.0 139,555 84.0 4,935 3.0
1991 199,901 22,833 11.4 167,385 83.7 9,683 4.8
2001 224,755 25,689 11.4 185,162 82.4 13,904 6.2
2006 239,985 26,826 11.2 193,263 80.5 19,896 8.3
2011 263,260 31,685 12.0 206,495 78.4 25,080 9.5
 

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Gatineau census division data from the censuses between 1981 and 2006 corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011 censuses

 

1.1.3. Proportion of the population by mother tongue from 1981 to 2011

Between 1981 and 2011, the proportion of the Gatineau population whose mother tongue was French decreased from 84.0% to 78.4%, while the proportion of those whose mother tongue was English remained stable, dropping slightly from 13.0% to 12.0% (see Table 4). In contrast, the proportion of people in Gatineau whose mother tongue was neither English nor French more than tripled over the same period, increasing from 3.0% to 9.5%.

 
Table 4: Proportion of population by mother tongue, Gatineau census division, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011
Year Total (%) English as mother tongue (%) French as mother tongue (%) Other languages as mother tongue (%)
1981 100.0 13.0 84.0 3.0
1991 100.0 11.4 83.7 4.8
2001 100.0 11.4 82.4 6.2
2006 100.0 11.2 80.5 8.3
2011 100.0 12.0 78.4 9.5
 

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Gatineau census division data from the censuses between 1981 and 2006 corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011 censuses

 

1.2. First official language spoken

1.2.1. Population by first official language spoken in 2011

In 2011, French was the first official language spoken (FOLS) among a large majority (83.7%) of Gatineau’s population (see Table 5). In contrast, English was the FOLS for 15.7% of the population. The percentage of the population whose FOLS was neither English nor French was 0.6%. However, other data (not shown here) indicate that French was the FOLS for 53% of people whose mother tongue was neither English nor French, and English was the FOLS for 41% of the same population.Footnote 2

 
Table 5: Population by first official language spoken, Gatineau census division, 2011
First official language spoken Number Percentage
Total population 263,260 100.0
English as the first official language spoken 41,375 15.7
French as the first official language spoken 220,415 83.7
Neither French nor English as the first official language spoken 1,470 0.6
 

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

1.2.2. Population by first official language spoken, from 1981 to 2011

The number of people in Gatineau whose FOLS was French grew by 54.8% between 1981 and 2011, reaching 220,400 in 2011 (see tables Table 6 and Table 7). The population whose FOLS was English increased by 80.1%, for a total of 41,400 in 2011, and the population whose FOLS was neither English nor French, although much smaller, almost doubled (99.7%), reaching 1,500 in 2011.

 
Table 6: Population growth rates by first official language spoken, Gatineau census division, 1981 to 2011
First official language spoken Percentage
Total growth 58.2
English as the first official language spoken 80.1
French as the first official language spoken 54.8
Other languages as the first official language spoken 99.7
 

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Gatineau census division data from the 1981 Census corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981 and 2011 censuses

 
 
Table 7: Population by first official language spoken, Gatineau census division, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011
Year Total English as the first official language spoken French as the first official language spoken Neither English nor French as the first official language spoken
Number Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage
1981 166,115 22,968 13.8 142,412 85.7 736 0.4
1991 199,895 26,968 13.5 171,963 86.0 965 0.5
2001 224,755 30,763 13.7 192,853 85.8 1,135 0.5
2006 239,985 34,293 14.3 204,553 85.2 1,135 0.5
2011 263,260 41,375 15.7 220,415 83.7 1,470 0.6
 

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Gatineau census division data from the censuses between 1981 and 2006 corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011 censuses.

 

1.2.3. Proportion of the population by first official language spoken

In Gatineau, the proportion of the population whose FOLS was French decreased slightly between 1981 and 2011, from 85.7% to 83.7% (see Table 8). Conversely, the proportion of the population whose FOLS was English slightly over the same period, from 13.8% to 15.7%. The proportion of the population whose FOLS was neither English nor French showed an increase from 0.4% to 0.6%.

 
Table 8: Proportion of the population by first official language spoken, Gatineau census division, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011
Year Total (%) English as the first official language spoken (%) French as the first official language spoken (%) Neither English nor French as the first official language spoken (%)
1981 100.0 13.8 85.7 0.4
1991 100.0 13.5 86.0 0.5
2001 100.0 13.7 85.8 0.5
2006 100.0 14.3 85.2 0.5
2011 100.0 15.7 83.7 0.6
 

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Gatineau census division data from the censuses between 1981 and 2006 corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011 censuses

 

1.3. Knowledge of official languages

From 1981 to 2011, the proportion of people in Gatineau who reported being able to conduct a conversation only in French decreased from 35.8% to 28.9% (see Table 9). The proportion of people who said they were able to conduct a conversation only in English fluctuated slightly over the same period, ranging from 5.2% to 6.5%. This proportion rose to 6.5% in both 1981 and 2011. In contrast, the proportion of people who reported being able to conduct a conversation in both official languages increased, from 57.2% in 1981 to 64.0% in 2011. The proportion of people who reported being unable to conduct a conversation in English or French remained stable. This stability results essentially from the fact that many immigrants do not know either official language when they arrive, but this number decreases with the length of their stay in Canada.

 
Table 9: Knowledge of official languages, Gatineau census division, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011
Year Total knowledge of official languages(%) English only as the knowledge of official languages (%) French only as the knowledge of official languages (%) English and French as the knowledge of official languages (%) Neither English nor French as the knowledge of official languages (%)
1981 100.0 6.5 35.8 57.2 0.5
1991 100.0 5.7 33.3 60.5 0.5
2001 100.0 5.2 29.4 64.8 0.5
2006 100.0 5.4 31.1 63.0 0.5
2011 100.0 6.5 28.9 64.0 0.6
 

Note:

Gatineau census division data from the censuses between 1981 and 2006 corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011 censuses

 

In Gatineau, the proportion of people who reported being able to conduct a conversation in French remained stable, going from 93.1% in 1981 to 92.9% in 2011 (see Table 10). In contrast, the proportion of people who reported being able to conduct a conversation in English increased between 1981 and 2011, from 63.7% to 70.5%.

 
Table 10: Knowledge of official languages, Gatineau census division, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011
Year knowledge of At least English as an official language(%) knowledge of At least French as an official language (%)
1981 63.7 93.1
1991 66.2 93.8
2001 70.0 94.3
2006 68.4 94.1
2011 70.5 92.9
 

Note:

The categories "English" and "French" include all responses that mention either of these languages.

Gatineau census division data from the censuses between 1981 and 2006 corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011 censuses

 

1.4. Language spoken at home

1.4.1. Official languages spoken at home

Between 2001 and 2011,Footnote 3 the proportion of people in Gatineau who reported French as the only language they speak at home, or as the language they most often speak at home, decreased from 83.4% to 80.5% (see Table 11). In contrast, the proportion of people who reported English as the only language spoken at home, or as the language they most often speak at home, increased from 13.0% to 14.5%. Similarly, the proportion of people who reported speaking English and French equally at home or speaking only another language increased slightly over this period, from 1.8% to 2.6% and from 1.8% to 2.5%, respectively.

The proportion of people who reported speaking only French at home decreased from 72.0% in 2001 to 67.4% in 2011. In contrast, the proportion of people who reported speaking mostly French at home increased from 11.3% to 13.0% over the same period.

Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of people in Gatineau who reported English as the only language they speak at home increased slightly, from 9.2% to 10.2%, as did the proportion of people who reported English as the language they most often speak at home (from 3.9% to 4.3%).

 
Table 11: Official languages spoken at home, Gatineau census division, 2001, 2006 and 2011
  2001 (%) 2006 (%) 2011 (%)
Total Official languages spoken at home 100.0 100.0 100.0
English only as the Official languages spoken at home 9.2 9.0 10.2
English most often as the Official languages spoken at home 3.9 4.4 4.3
English and French equally as the Official languages spoken at home 1.8 1.7 2.6
French most often as the Official languages spoken at home 11.3 12.0 13.0
French only as the Official languages spoken at home 72.0 70.7 67.4
Other only as the Official languages spoken at home 1.8 2.2 2.5
 

Note:

Gatineau census division data from the 2001 and 2006 censuses corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2001, 2006 and 2011 censuses

 

1.4.2. Language spoken most often at home

Between 1981 and 2011, the proportion of people in Gatineau who reported speaking French most often at home dropped from 83.4% to 79.7%, while the proportion of people who reported speaking English most often at home remained relatively stable (see Table 12). In contrast, the proportion of people who reported speaking another language most often at home tripled, from 1.9% in 1981 to 5.7% in 2011.

 
Table 12: Language spoken most often at home, Gatineau census division, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011
Year Total (%) of all languages spoken most often at home English (%) as the language spoken most often at home French (%) as the language spoken most often at home Other (%) as the language spoken most often at home
1981 100.0 14.7 83.4 1.9
1991 100.0 13.2 83.7 3.1
2001 100.0 13.2 83.1 3.7
2006 100.0 13.4 81.6 5.0
2011 100.0 14.6 79.7 5.7
 

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Gatineau census division data from the censuses between 1981 and 2006 corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011 censuses

 

2. Characteristics of linguistic groups (2011 National Household Survey data)

2.1. Mother tongue

2.1.1. Sex

In 2011, 48.6% of Gatineau residents were men and 51.4% were women. Among the population whose mother tongue was French, the distribution was 48.2% men and 51.8% women, while for those whose mother tongue was English, it was 49.9% men 50.1% women. Among those whose mother tongue was neither English nor French, the distribution was 49.7% men and 50.5% women.

2.1.2. Age

The distribution among the various age groups varied slightly between the language groups (see Table 13). The population whose mother tongue was French had relatively few young people (aged 0 to 44) and a greater proportion of older people (aged 45 to 64 and aged 65 and over). The population whose mother tongue was neither English nor French had a greater proportion of people aged 35 to 44 than the other two populations.

 
Table 13: Age by mother tongue
  Total Population English as their mother tongue French as their mother tongue Neither English nor French as their mother tongue
Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage
Total 261,665 100.0 30,075 100.0 205,501 100.0 26,085 100.0
0 to 14 45,985 17.6 5,660 18.8 36,125 17.6 4,190 16.1
15 to 24 36,270 13.9 4,690 15.6 28,480 13.9 3,085 11.8
25 to 34 37,720 14.4 4,640 15.4 28,460 13.8 4,615 17.7
35 to 44 36,770 14.1 4,575 15.2 26,285 12.8 5,910 22.7
45 to 64 76,485 29.2 7,870 26.2 62,195 30.3 6,420 24.6
65+ 28,440 10.9 2,635 8.8 23,950 11.7 1,855 7.1
 

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

2.1.3. Knowledge of both official languages and trilingualism

In 2011, almost two thirds (64.4%) of people in Gatineau reported being able to conduct a conversation in both official languages.

The proportions of people whose mother tongue was English or French and who reported being able to conduct a conversation in both official languages were about the same, 62.2% and 66.3%, respectively. In comparison, this proportion was 51.8% for people whose mother tongue was neither English nor French.

The proportion of people whose mother tongue was neither English nor French and who reported being able to conduct a conversation in both official languages as well as at least one other language (24.4%) was greater than the corresponding proportions for the French-speaking (11.7%) and English-speaking (3.8%) populations.

Nearly everyone whose mother tongue was neither English nor French and who reported being able to conduct a conversation in both official languages also reported being able to conduct a conversation in a third language.

2.1.4. Province of work

In 2011, the majority (60.5%) of Gatineau workers whose mother tongue was English were employed in Ontario, as were 50.7% of workers whose mother tongue was neither English nor French. In comparison, only 32.4% of Gatineau workers whose mother tongue was French were employed in Ontario.

2.1.5. Language of work

In 2011, a large majority (88.0%) of workers in Gatineau reported using French most often and regularly at work, 70.5% of workers reported using English, and 1.3% reported using another language.

The vast majority (95.6%) of Gatineau workers whose mother tongue was French reported using French at work in 2011: 70.1% used it most often, 7.8% used it equally with English and 17.6% used it regularly as a secondary language. Among Gatineau workers whose mother tongue was French, nearly two thirds (65.9%) reported using English at work, with 22.0% using it most often, 7.8% using it equally with French and 36.0% using it regularly as a secondary language.

The vast majority (95.1%) of Gatineau workers whose mother tongue was English reported using English at work in 2011: 75.8% used it most often, 8.7% used it equally with French and 10.6% used it regularly as a secondary language.Footnote 4 Among Gatineau workers whose mother tongue was English, 54.6% reported using French at work, with 15.3% using it most often, 8.7% using it equally with English and 30.6% using it regularly as a secondary language.

The majority (68.4%) of Gatineau workers whose mother tongue was neither English nor French reported using French at work in 2011: 38.0% used it most often, 13.4% used it equally with English and 17.0% used it regularly as a secondary language. Among Gatineau workers whose mother tongue was neither English nor French, 78.1% reported using English at work, with 45.9% using it most often, 13.4% using it equally with French and 18.9% using it regularly as a secondary language.Footnote 5

2.1.6. Interprovincial migration

According to statistics from 2011, 4.2% of Gatineau’s population resided in a province or territory other than Quebec at the time of the 2006 Census. This proportion was 2.5% among people whose mother tongue was French, compared with 13.3% among people whose mother tongue was English and 7.2% among people whose mother tongue was neither English nor French.

Interprovincial migrants came to Gatineau mainly from three provinces: Ontario (78.6%), New Brunswick (5.7%) and Alberta (5.0%).

Interprovincial migrants whose mother tongue was French came to Gatineau mainly from three provinces: Ontario (77.1%), New Brunswick (8.8%) and Alberta (3.8%).

Interprovincial migrants whose mother tongue was English came to Gatineau mainly from three provinces: Ontario (77.9%), Alberta (6.2%) and British Columbia (3.7%).

Interprovincial migrants whose mother tongue was neither English nor French came to Gatineau mainly from Ontario (84.2%), Alberta (5.9%) and Manitoba (4.3%).

2.1.7. Immigrant status and period of immigration

In 2011, 10.9% of Gatineau’s population were immigrants. The proportions among the English-speaking and French speaking populations were 7.2% and 2.9%, respectively. In contrast, more than three quarters (78.6%) of people whose mother tongue was neither English nor French were born outside of Canada.

In 2011, nearly three quarters (71.7%) of Gatineau’s immigrant population reported that their mother tongue was neither English nor French, while French was the mother tongue of 20.7% of Gatineau immigrants and English was the mother tongue of 7.6% of newcomers to Gatineau.

In Gatineau, nearly half (47.1%) of immigrants had arrived in Canada less than 10 years ago. This proportion was similar among Gatineau’s French-speaking immigrants (52.1%) and among immigrants whose mother tongue was neither English nor French (47.1%). In contrast, just upwards of a third (33.6%) of immigrants whose mother tongue was English settled in Canada during the same period.

2.1.8. Visible minorities

In 2011, 10.3% of people living in Gatineau were members of a visible minority. This proportion was 9.1% among people whose mother tongue was English and 3.7% among people whose mother tongue was French. Nearly two thirds (63.3%) of people whose mother tongue was neither English nor French were members of a visible minority.

In 2011, the mother tongue for the majority (61.3%) of the visible minority population of Gatineau was a language other than English or French. This proportion was much lower for people whose mother tongue was French (28.5%) and those whose mother tongue was English (10.2%).

In 2011, the three largest groups of visible minorities in Gatineau were Black, Arab and Latin American, which represented 37.7%, 24.0% and 14.3% of the visible minority population, respectively.

Among the visible minorities whose mother tongue was French, the three largest groups were Black (64.3%), Arab (14.1%) and Chinese (5.2%). Among the visible minorities whose mother tongue was English, the three largest groups were Black (46.4%), Arab (16.5%) and South Asian (8.4%). And Among the visible minorities whose mother tongue was neither English nor French, the three largest groups were Arab (29.8%), Black (24.0%) and Latin American (21.1%).

2.1.9. Highest level of education attained

In 2011, 21.1% of Gatineau’s population aged 15 and over had no certificate, diploma or degree.

A little over one fifth (21.9%) of the population aged 15 and over whose mother tongue was French had no certificate, diploma or degree. The corresponding proportions for those whose mother tongue was English and those whose mother tongue was neither English nor French were slightly lower: 18.7% and 17.3%, respectively.

In 2011, 57.0% of Gatineau’s population aged 15 and older had post-secondary qualifications.

Among Gatineau’s population aged 15 and older whose mother tongue was neither English nor French, nearly two thirds (64.4%) had post-secondary qualifications. The corresponding proportions were somewhat lower for those whose mother tongue was French (56.3%) and those whose mother tongue was English (54.9%).

In 2011, nearly a quarter (22.9%) of Gatineau’s population aged 15 and older had post-secondary qualifications at a bachelor level or above.

Among those aged 15 and over whose official language was neither English nor French, a little over a third (36.5%) had post-secondary qualifications at a bachelor level or above. Again, proportions were lower for those whose mother tongue was English (22.8%) and those whose mother tongue was French (21.1%).

2.1.10. Unemployment rate

In 2011, the unemployment rateFootnote 6 in Gatineau was 5.7%.

Gatineau workers whose mother tongue was French had the lowest unemployment rate (5.2%), followed by those whose mother tongue was English (6.7%) and those whose mother tongue was neither English nor French (8.7%).

2.1.11. Income and employment incomeFootnote 7

In 2011, the mean and median incomesFootnote 8 of people living in Gatineau whose mother tongue was French (approximately $42,400 and $36,500) were practically identical to those whose mother tongue was English (approximately $42,300 and $36,400).

People living in Gatineau whose mother tongue was neither English nor French had a mean income that was $7,500 lower than that of the Francophone population and $7,400 lower than that of the Anglophone population. Their median income was $9,300 lower than that of the Francophone population and $9,200 lower than that of the Anglophone population.

The mean employment income people living in Gatineau whose mother tongue was English ($44,200) was slightly higher than that of people whose mother tongue was French ($43,300). The median employment income of these two populations was very similar: $39,100 and $39,000, respectively.

People living in Gatineau whose mother tongue was neither English nor French had a mean employment income that was $6,400 lower than that of the Anglophone population and $5,500 lower than that of the Francophone population. Their median employment income was $8,100 lower than that of the Anglophone population and $8,000 lower than that of the Francophone population.

2.1.12. Employment sectors

In 2011, nearly half (49.5%) of Gatineau’s labour force was employed in the following sectors: public administration (27.7%), retail trade (11.0%) and health care and social assistance (10.7%).

Similarly, just upwards of half (50.8%) of Gatineau’s French-speaking workers were employed in public administration (28.2%), retail trade (11.4%) and health care and social assistance (11.1%).

Nearly half (44.6%) of Gatineau’s English-speaking workers were employed in public administration (26.6%), retail trade (10.2%) and accommodation and food services (7.8%).

And almost half (46.4%) of Gatineau workers whose mother tongue is neither English nor French were employed in public administration (25.2%), health care and social assistance (11.9%) and accommodation and food services (9.4%).

In 2011, workers whose mother tongue was French made up 78.2% of Gatineau’s labour force. This segment of the population was overrepresented in the utilities sector (91.9%) and underrepresented in the sectors of accommodation and food services (70.0%) and administrative and support, waste management and remediation services (69.7%).

Workers whose mother tongue was English constituted 11.6% of Gatineau’s labour force. This group was overrepresented in arts, entertainment and recreation (16.1%) finance and insurance (15.8%) and wholesale trade (15.5%), and underrepresented in utilities (5.0%), agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting (5.7%) and health care and social assistance (7.8%).

Workers whose mother tongue was neither English nor French represented 10.2% of Gatineau’s labour force and was overrepresented in administrative and support, waste management and remediation services (15.8%) and accommodation and food services (15.4%), and underrepresented in sectors such as utilities (2.5%) and arts and entertainment (6.8%).

2.1.13. Occupations

In 2011, the most common occupations among workers in Gatineau whose mother tongue was French were associated with business, finance and administration (23.5%) and sales and service (23.0%), as well as education, law and social, community and government services (14.6%).

The most common occupations in Gatineau for workers whose mother tongue was English were related to sales and service (24.0%), business, finance and administration (22.7%) and education, law and social, community and government services (12.8%).

The most common occupations for Gatineau workers whose mother tongue was neither English nor French were in sales and service (26.3%), business, finance and administration (20.2%) and education, law and social, community and government services (16.5%).

2.1.14. English-French exogamous couples

In 2011, of the 9,965 Gatineau couples in which the mother tongue of at least one spouse was English, 6,420 (64.4%) were English-French exogamous couples.

2.2. First official language spoken

2.2.1. Sex

In 2011, 48.6% of Gatineau residents were men and 51.4% were women. Among the population whose FOLS was French, the distribution was nearly identical to that of the general population, with 48.3% men and 51.7% women. However, among the population whose FOLS was English, there were slightly fewer women (49.9%) than men (50.1%). Among people whose FOLS was neither English nor French, there was a significant difference between men (42%) and women (58%).

2.2.2. Age

The distribution among the various age groups differed between the language groups. The population whose FOLS was English had more young people (except for the youngest group aged 0 to 14) and fewer older people (see Table 14). The most notable differences were between the general population and the population whose FOLS was neither English nor French. The latter population had a very high number of youth under the age of 14 (36.8%) and people over the age of 65 (26.4%). However, this is a very small population.

 
Table 14: Age by first official language spoken
  Total Population English as the first official language spoken French as the first official language spoken Neither English nor French as the first official language spoken
Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage
Total 261,665 100.0 40,345 100.0 219,780 100.0 1,535 100.0
0 to 14 45,985 17.6 6,625 16.4 38,795 17.7 560 36.8
15 to 24 36,270 13.9 5,995 14.9 30,250 13.8 35 2.0
25 to 34 37,720 14.4 6,745 16.7 30,945 14.1 30 2.3
35 to 44 36,770 14.1 7,080 17.5 29,580 13.5 120 7.5
45 to 64 76,485 29.2 10,610 26.3 65,495 29.8 385 24.8
65+ 28,440 10.9 3,300 8.2 24,730 11.3 400 26.4
 

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

2.2.3. Knowledge of both official languages and trilingualism

In 2011, the proportion of people in Gatineau whose FOLS was French and who reported being able to conduct a conversation in both official languages (65.8%) was greater than that of people whose FOLS was English (58.8%).

The proportion of people in Gatineau whose FOLS was French and who reported being able to conduct a conversation in both official languages and at least one other language (8.7%) was relatively low compared to that of people whose FOLS was English (16.9%).

2.2.4. Province of work

In 2011, almost two thirds (61.6%) of Gatineau workers whose FOLS was English were employed in Ontario, compared with nearly one third of workers whose FOLS was French (32.9%).

2.2.5. Language of work

In 2011, the vast majority (95.3%) of Gatineau workers whose FOLS was French reported using French at work: 69.3% used it most often, 8.4% used it equally with English and 17.6% used it regularly as a secondary language. Among Gatineau workers whose FOLS was French, two thirds (66.0%) reported using English at work, with 22.2% using it most often, 8.4% using it equally with French and 35.4% using it regularly as a secondary language.

The vast majority (94.6%) of Gatineau workers whose FOLS was English reported using English at work: 75.0% used it most often, 9.1% used it equally with French and 10.5% used it regularly as a secondary language.Footnote 9 Among Gatineau workers whose FOLS was English, 51.1% reported using French at work, with 15.2% using it most often, 9.1% using it equally with English and 26.9% using it regularly as a secondary language.

2.2.6. Interprovincial migration

In 2011, 2.6% of people in Gatineau whose FOLS was French reported having lived in a province or territory other than Quebec in 2006. However, there was a higher proportion (12.7%) of interprovincial migrants among the population whose FOLS was English.

Interprovincial migrants whose FOLS was French came to Gatineau mainly from three provinces: Ontario (78.9%), New Brunswick (8.1%) and Alberta (4.1%).

Interprovincial migrants whose FOLS was English came to Gatineau mainly from three provinces: Ontario (79.9%), Alberta (6.0%) and British Columbia (3.6%).

2.2.7. Immigrant status and period of immigration

In 2011, 59.6% of Gatineau’s immigrant population reported French as their FOLS and 36.4% reported English as their FOLS, while the percentage of Gatineau immigrants whose FOLS was neither English nor French was 4%.

In 2011, about half (51.8%) of immigrants to Gatineau whose FOLS was French came to Canada during the past 10 years. In contrast, 39.1% of immigrants whose FOLS was English FOLS came to Canada during the past 10 years.

2.2.8. Visible minorities

In 2011, 10.3% of people living in Gatineau were members of a visible minority. This proportion was 22.2% among people whose FOLS was English and 7.7% among people whose FOLS was French.

In 2011, nearly two thirds (62.8%) of Gatineau’s visible minority population comprised people whose FOLS was French. The proportion was nearly half this size for people whose FOLS was English (33.3%).

In 2011, among the visible minorities whose FOLS was French, the three largest groups in Gatineau were Black (46.9%), Arab (23.5%) and Latin American (13.9%). Among the visible minorities whose FOLS was English, the three largest groups were the same, but in a different order: Arab (24.5%), Black (22.7%) and Latin American (14.3%).

2.2.9. Highest level of education attained

Among Gatineau residents, 16.8% of the population whose FOLS was English and 21.6% of the population whose FOLS was French had no certificate, diploma or degree.

Over two thirds (68.7%) of Gatineau’s population aged 15 and older whose FOLS was neither English nor French had no certificate, diploma, or degree.

The majority (58.9%) of people living in Gatineau aged 15 and older whose FOLS was English had post-secondary qualifications, as did the majority (56.8%) of those whose FOLS was French. In contrast, only 15.4% of people in Gatineau aged 15 and older whose FOLS was neither English nor French had post-secondary qualifications.

In 2011, just over a quarter (27.8%) of the population aged 15 and older whose FOLS was English and just under a quarter (22.0%) of those whose FOLS was French had post-secondary qualifications at a bachelor level or above. In contrast, only 4.6% of those whose FOLS was neither English nor French had the same qualifications.

2.2.10. Unemployment rate

In 2011, people whose FOLS was French had the lowest unemployment rate (5.5%) in Gatineau, followed by those whose FOLS was English FOLS (7.2%) and those whose FOLS was neither English nor French (8.0%).Footnote 10

2.2.11. Income and employment income

In 2011, in Gatineau, the mean and median incomes of people living in Gatineau whose FOLS was French ($41,900 and $35,900, respectively) were higher than the mean and median incomes of those whose FOLS was English ($40,600 and $34,800, respectively).

The mean and median employment incomes for people living in Gatineau whose FOLS was French ($42,900 and $38,300, respectively) were similar to those of people whose FOLS was English ($42,700 and $38,200, respectively).

2.2.12. Employment sectors

In 2011, half (50.5%) of Gatineau workers whose FOLS was French were employed in the following sectors: public administration (28.0%), health care and social assistance (11.3%) and retail trade (11.2%).

Nearly half (44.9%) of Gatineau workers whole FOLS was English were employed in public administration (26.5%), retail trade (9.7%) and accommodation and food services (8.7%).

In 2011, workers whose FOLS was French constituted 83.7% of Gatineau’s labour force. This segment of the population was overrepresented in utilities (93.8%) and underrepresented in accommodation and food services (77.4%) and professional, scientific and technical services (78.5%).

Workers whose FOLS was English represented 16.1% of Gatineau’s labour force. This group was overrepresented in sectors such as accommodation and food services (22.4%), professional, technical and scientific services (21.4%) and finance and insurance (20.5%) and underrepresented in sectors such as utilities (6.2%), agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting (10.0%) and health care and social assistance (11.5%).

2.2.13. Occupations

In 2011, most common occupations among workers in Gatineau whose FOLS was French were related to sales and service (23.3%), business, finance and administration (23.2%) and education, law and social, community and governments services (14.9%).

The most common occupations in Gatineau among workers whose FOLS was English were in sales and service (24.4%), business, finance and administration (22.5%), and education, law and social, community and governments services (13.0%).

3. Language groups in Gatineau neighbourhoods (2011 Census data)

3.1. Mother tongue

In 2011, three Gatineau neighbourhoods had a population of more than 3,000 people whose mother tongue was English (data not shown). These were also the neighbourhoods in which English was the mother tongue of over 20% of the population (see Table 15). The neighbourhoods were Aylmer (32.4% of the neighbourhood’s population), Deschênes (27.7%) and Lucerne (21.8%).

 
Table 15: Percentage of the population with English as mother tongue, by city of Gatineau and its neighbourhoods, 2011
Neighbourhood Mother tongue – English (%)
Aylmer 32.4
Deschênes 27.7
Lucerne 21.8
Hull–Wright 15.5
Plateau 13.4
Manoir-des-Trembles–Val-Tétreau 12.0
Parc-de-la-Montagne–Saint-Raymond 9.3
Buckingham 9.1
Orée-du-Parc 8.8
Pointe-Gatineau 8.4
Lac-Beauchamp 8.1
Carrefour-de-l’Hôpital 7.2
Touraine 6.9
Rivière-Blanche 6.5
Limbour 6.3
Bellevue 6.1
Versant 6.0
Masson-Angers 4.6
Total – Gatineau 12.0
 

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

3.2. First official language spoken

In terms of the official language minority percentage by FOLS in 2011, the proportion of English speakers was higher than 20% in five Gatineau neighbourhoods (see Table 16): Deschênes (37.6%), Aylmer (36.8%), Lucerne (26.8%), Hull–Wright (22.4%) and Plateau (20.5%). The Manoir-des-Trembles–Val-Tétreau neighbourhood (17.3%) also had a greater proportion of English speakers than the City of Gatineau as a whole (15.7%).

 
Table 16: Percentage of the population with English as first official language spoken (with redistribution of the English-French category), by city of Gatineau and its neighbourhoods, 2011
Neighbourhood English as first official language spoken (%)
Deschênes 37.6
Aylmer 36.8
Lucerne 26.8
Hull–Wright 22.4
Plateau 20.5
Manoir-des-Trembles–Val-Tétreau 17.3
Parc-de-la-Montagne–Saint-Raymond 14.5
Orée-du-Parc 12.8
Pointe-Gatineau 12.1
Carrefour-de-l’Hôpital 10.1
Touraine 9.2
Buckingham 9.2
Limbour 9.2
Lac-Beauchamp 9.1
Versant 7.9
Rivière-Blanche 7.1
Bellevue 7.0
Masson-Angers 5.0
Total – Gatineau 15.7
 

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

These six neighbourhoods were home to a total of 60.3% of all people in Gatineau whose FOLS was the English (data not shown).

3.3. Knowledge of both official languages

The English-French bilingualism rate in Gatineau was 64.0% in 2011, and it was greater than 50% in each of the city’s neighbourhoods (see Table 17). Over two thirds of the population were able to conduct a conversation in English and French in Lucerne (70.5%), Manoir-des-Trembles–Val-Tétreau (69.6%), Limbour (69.5%), Aylmer (68.7%), Orée-du-Parc (67.4%) and Deschênes (67.0%).

 
Table 17: Knowledge of both official languages, by city of Gatineau and its neighbourhoods, 2011
Neighbourhood Knowledge of both official languages (%)
Lucerne 70.5
Manoir-des-Trembles–Val-Tétreau 69.6
Limbour 69.5
Aylmer 68.7
Orée-du-Parc 67.4
Deschênes 67.0
Plateau 65.9
Carrefour-de-l’Hôpital 65.2
Parc-de-la-Montagne–Saint-Raymond 64.5
Versant 64.3
Touraine 63.1
Bellevue 61.6
Rivière-Blanche 61.3
Hull–Wright 61.2
Pointe-Gatineau 60.7
Lac-Beauchamp 59.7
Buckingham 55.7
Masson-Angers 53.9
Total – Gatineau 64.0
 

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

In all of Gatineau, 99.4% of the population were able to conduct a conversation in at least one of the two official languages (data not shown), which means that 0.6% of Gatineau’s population could not conduct a conversation in either English or French. This proportion was higher in certain neighbourhoods, including Parc-de-la-Montagne–Saint-Raymond (1.4%) and Hull–Wright (1.3%).

3.4. Language spoken at home

In 2011, French was the language spoken most often at home in Gatineau (see Table 18). In five neighbourhoods of the city, however, the proportion of the population who reported English as their onlyFootnote 11 official language or the one they speak most oftenFootnote 12 at home was greater than 20% (see Table 18). These neighbourhoods were Aylmer (42.2%), Deschênes (40.8%), Lucerne (30.4%), Hull–Wright (23.2%) and Plateau (21.5%).

 
Table 18: English as official language spoken most often at home, by city of Gatineau and its neighbourhoods, 2011
Neighbourhood English only as the official language spoken most often at home (%) English as the official language most often spoken at home (%) English and French equally as the official languages spoken most often at home (%) Total of French as the official language spoken most often at home (%)
Aylmer 28.2 10.6 3.4 42.2
Deschênes 27.5 9.2 4.2 40.8
Lucerne 19.2 7.8 3.4 30.4
Hull–Wright 15.7 4.4 3.1 23.2
Plateau 13.0 5.2 3.3 21.5
Manoir-des-Trembles–Val-Tétreau 11.0 4.6 2.9 18.5
Parc-de-la-Montagne–Saint-Raymond 8.8 3.3 2.9 15.0
Orée-du-Parc 7.7 3.5 2.5 13.7
Pointe-Gatineau 7.3 3.1 2.8 13.1
Carrefour-de-l’Hôpital 5.3 2.9 2.4 10.5
Lac-Beauchamp 5.4 2.5 2.2 10.2
Buckingham 5.4 2.9 1.5 9.8
Touraine 4.8 2.6 2.3 9.7
Limbour 4.4 2.8 2.4 9.7
Versant 3.8 2.5 2.0 8.3
Bellevue 3.4 2.5 2.0 7.9
Rivière-Blanche 3.4 2.8 1.6 7.7
Masson-Angers 2.4 1.9 1.1 5.4
Total – Gatineau 10.2 4.3 2.6 17.1
 

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

4. Language groups in census divisions and subdivisions around Gatineau (2011 Census data)

4.1. Mother tongue

Three census divisions (CD) surround the Gatineau CD: Les Collines-de-l’Outaouais, La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau and Papineau. In 2011, 47.1% of the population of La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau were people whose mother tongue was English, compared to 24.6% for Les Collines-de-l’Outaouais and 4.5% for Papineau (see Table 19). The proportion of people whose mother tongue was English in La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau and Les Collines-de-l’Outaouais was greater than that in Gatineau (12.0%).

 
Table 19: Percentage of the population with English as mother tongue, by census division (CD) and subdivision (CSD) around Gatineau, 2011
Census division (CD) and Subdivision (CSD) around Gatineau Geographical unit English (%) as mother tongue
Les Collines-de-l’Outaouais CD 24.6
L’Ange-Gardien CSD 10.7
Notre-Dame-de-la-Salette CSD 6.9
Val-des-Monts CSD 12.3
Cantley CSD 11.9
Chelsea CSD 46.8
Pontiac CSD 40.2
La Pêche CSD 37.4
La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau CD 47.1
Denholm CSD 32.2
Low CSD 56.4
Papineau CD 4.5
Montebello CSD 4.1
Papineauville CSD 2.9
Plaisance CSD 2.9
Thurso CSD 3.9
Lochaber CSD 11.6
Lochaber–Partie-Ouest CSD 10.9
 

Note:

Only the census subdivisions that are closest to Ottawa are listed in this table.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

The population whose mother tongue was English was also much higher proportionally in each of the census subdivisions (CSD) in La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau than in Gatineau. The proportion of the population whose mother tongue was English was 56.4% in Low and 32.2% in Denholm. This was also the case in some CSDs in Les Collines-de-l’Outaouais, where the proportion of the population whose mother tongue was English was 46.8% in Chelsea, 40.2% in Pontiac, 37.4% in La Pêche and 12.3% in Val-des-Monts.

On the other hand, the proportion of the population whose mother tongue was English was less than 12% in all of Papineau’s CSDs, although it came close in Lochaber (11.6%) and in Lochaber–Partie-Ouest (10.9%).

4.2. First official language spoken

In 2011, 48.3% of the population of La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau were people whose FOLS was English, compared to 26.2% for Les Collines-de-l’Outaouais and 4.6% for Papineau (see Table 20). The proportion of people whose mother tongue was English in La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau and Les Collines-de-l’Outaouais was greater than that of Gatineau (15.7%).

 
Table 20: Percentage of the population with English as first official language spoken, by census division (CD) and subdivision (CSD) around Gatineau, 2011
Census division (CD) and Subdivision (CSD) around Gatineau Geographical unit English (%) as first official language spoken
Les Collines-de-l’Outaouais CD 26.2
L’Ange-Gardien CSD 10.8
Notre-Dame-de-la-Salette CSD 7.2
Val-des-Monts CSD 12.7
Cantley CSD 13.2
Chelsea CSD 50.5
Pontiac CSD 42.5
La Pêche CSD 39.6
La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau CD 48.3
Denholm CSD 32.6
Low CSD 57.9
Papineau CD 4.6
Montebello CSD 4.4
Papineauville CSD 2.6
Plaisance CSD 2.3
Thurso CSD 3.9
Lochaber CSD 14.0
Lochaber–Partie-Ouest CSD 10.9
 

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

The population whose FOLS was English was also much greater proportionally in each of La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau’s CSDs than in Gatineau. The proportion of the population whose FOLS was English was 57.9% in Low and 32.6% in Denholm. This was also the case in some CSDs in Les Collines-de-l’Outaouais, where the proportion of the population whose mother tongue was English was 50.5% in Chelsea, 42.5% in Pontiac and 39.6% in La Pêche.

On the other hand, the proportion of the population whose mother tongue was English was less than 15.7% in all of Papineau’s CSDs, although it was 14.0% in Lochaber.

4.3. Knowledge of both official languages

In 2011, Les Collines-de-l’Outaouais had an English-French bilingualism rate of 61.0%, compared to 56.7% for La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau and 39.6% for Papineau (see Table 21). None of them had a bilingualism rate greater than that of Gatineau (64.0%).

 
Table 21: Knowledge of both official languages, by census division (CD) and subdivision (CSD) around Gatineau, 2011
Census division (CD) and Subdivision (CSD) around Gatimeau Geographical unit Knowledge of both official languages (%)
Les Collines-de-l’Outaouais CD 61.0
L’Ange-Gardien CSD 56.6
Notre-Dame-de-la-Salette CSD 46.7
Val-des-Monts CD 58.4
Cantley CSD 62.9
Chelsea CSD 68.2
Pontiac CSD 63.1
La Pêche CSD 58.1
La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau CD 56.7
Denholm CSD 55.7
Low CSD 57.1
Papineau CD 39.6
Montebello CSD 43.6
Papineauville CSD 38.7
Plaisance CSD 36.2
Thurso CSD 36.9
Lochaber CD 39.0
Lochaber–Partie-Ouest CSD 52.7
 

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

In all the CDs surrounding Gatineau, the only CSD with a bilingualism rate greater than that of Gatineau is Chelsea, at 68.2%.

4.4. Language spoken at home

In 2011, the proportion of La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau residents who reported English as their onlyFootnote 11 official language or the one they speak the most oftenFootnote 12 at home was 54.5%, compared to 28.6% for Les Collines-de-l’Outaouais and 4.5% for Papineau (see Table 22). Both La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau and Les Collines-de-l’Outaouais had a greater proportion of these individuals than Gatineau (17.1%).

 
Table 22: Percentage of the population with English as official language spoken most often at home, by census division (CD) and subdivision (CSD) around Gatineau, 2011
Census division (CD) and Subdivision (CSD) around Gatineau Geographical unit English only as the official language spoken most often at home (%) English as the official language most often at home (%) English and
French equally as the official language spoken most often at home (%)
Total of French as the official language spoken most often at home (%)
Les Collines-de-l’Outaouais CD 20.9 6.2 1.5 28.6
L’Ange-Gardien CSD 6.7 3.4 1.0 11.1
Notre-Dame-de-la-Salette CSD 3.3 3.9 0.0 7.2
Val-des-Monts CSD 9.1 3.5 1.2 13.8
Cantley CSD 8.8 3.9 1.5 14.2
Chelsea CSD 40.6 11.5 2.2 54.3
Pontiac CSD 36.0 9.3 2.2 47.6
Pontiac CSD 36.0 9.3 2.2 47.6
La Pêche CSD 34.7 7.7 1.2 43.5
La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau CD 42.1 9.7 2.7 54.5
Denholm CSD 27.8 7.0 3.5 38.3
Low CSD 51.1 11.4 2.2 64.7
Papineau CD 2.5 1.4 0.7 4.5
Montebello CSD 2.1 0.5 1.0 3.6
Papineauville CSD 0.9 0.7 0.9 2.5
Plaisance CSD 0.9 0.9 0.9 2.7
Thurso CSD 2.0 1.2 0.8 4.1
Lochaber CD 8.6 2.5 1.2 12.3
Lochaber–Partie-Ouest CSD 7.7 4.6 0.0 12.3
 

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

The proportion of people who reported English as the official language spoken most often at home was also much greater in each of La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau’s CSDs than in Gatineau: 64.7% in Low and 38.3% in Denholm. This was also the case in some CSDs in Les Collines-de-l’Outaouais, where the proportion was 54.3% in Chelsea, 47.5% in Pontiac and 43.6% in La Pêche.

Conversely, the proportion of the population who reported English as the official language spoken most often at home was less than 17.1% in all of Papineau’s CSDs, although the proportion was at least three times higher in Lochaber and Lochaber–Partie-Ouest than in Papineau’s other CSDs.

5. Appendix – Definitions of language variables

Knowledge of official languages

Ability to conduct a conversation in English only, in French only, in both English and French, or in neither English nor French, as reported by the respondent on May 10, 2011.

Mother tongue

First language learned at home in childhood and still understood, as reported by the respondent on May 10, 2011.

Official languages spoken at home

Data on official languages spoken at home are derived from the question on language spoken most often at home and the question on other languages spoken on a regular basis at home. People who report speaking French most often or regularly, without mentioning English (regardless of whether a language other than English is spoken) are included in the “French only” category. People who report French as the language spoken most often and English as the language spoken regularly (regardless of whether another language is spoken in combination with these two languages) are included in the “French most often” category. The categories of “English only” and “English most often” are created in the same manner. The “English and French equally” category includes instances where both English and French are given as multiple responses to the question on language spoken most often or on a regular basis at home (regardless of whether another language is spoken in combination with these two languages). People who mention neither English nor French as a response to either of the two questions on language spoken at home are included in the category “Other only.”

Language spoken most often at home

Language spoken most often at home, as reported by the respondent on May 10, 2011.

Language spoken regularly at home

Other language(s) spoken on a regular basis at home, as reported by the respondent on May 10, 2011.

Language used most often at work

Language used most often at work, as reported by the respondent on May 10, 2011.

Language used regularly at work

Other language(s) used regularly at work, as reported by the respondent on May 10, 2011.

First official language spoken

This variable was derived within the framework of the application of the Official Languages Act.

This derivation method is described in the regulations concerning the use of official languages for the provision of public services. It takes into account, first, the knowledge of the two official languages, second, the mother tongue and, third, the language spoken most often at home.

People who can conduct a conversation in French only are assigned French as their first official language spoken. People who can carry on a conversation in English only are assigned English as their first official language spoken. The responses to questions on mother tongue and language spoken most often at home are subsequently used to establish the first official language spoken by people who speak both English and French, or who cannot speak either of the two official languages. The “French” category includes people who have French only or French and at least one non-official language as their mother tongue. People who have English only or English and at least one non-official language as their mother tongue are included in the “English” category. For cases that have not yet been classified, people are assigned to the “French” category when they speak French only or French and at least one non-official language as their language spoken most often at home. The procedure is the same for the “English” category. Thus, the population is classified into two principal categories: “English” or “French.” It is necessary to add two residual categories for people who cannot be classified in accordance with the information available: “English and French” and “neither English nor French.”

Footnotes

Footnote 1

The rounding of numbers in tables may result in totals that do not equal 100.0.

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

It should be noted that a number of people whose mother tongue was neither English nor French have come from Ottawa or other parts of Canada, and they might have adopted English as their FOLS before arriving in Gatineau.

Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Statistics Canada started to collect data on all languages spoken at home (and not just language spoken most often) in 2001; therefore, the statistics presented here cover the period from 2001 to 2011. However, section 1.4.2. on language spoken most often at home presents information since 1981.

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

As mentioned in section 2.1.2, the majority (60.5%) of Gatineau workers whose mother tongue was English were employed in Ontario. Consequently, we can expect a high number of them can be expected to use mostly English at work.

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Half of Gatineau workers whose mother tongue is neither English nor French were employed in Ontario.

Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

Unemployment rates were calculated using data collected during the reference week, Sunday, May 1, 2011, to Saturday, May 7, 2011.

Return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

"Income" is distinguished from employment income, as it includes all sources of income, including Employment Insurance benefits, pension income, etc. Consequently, "income" is slightly lower than employment income.

Return to footnote 7 referrer

Footnote 8

The mean is the average calculated over all incomes, while the median corresponds exactly to the midpoint of the income distribution. The mean is more affected by outliers (extreme numbers); therefore, both the mean and the median must be considered when discussing income.

Return to footnote 8 referrer

Footnote 9

Note that a large proportion of this population works in Ontario.

Return to footnote 9 referrer

Footnote 10

The lower unemployment rate among people whose FOLS was French could be explained by their higher bilingualism rate, which might mean access to a larger labour pool.

Return to footnote 10 referrer

Footnote 11

Includes cases where English was reported as being used at home in combination with a language other than French.

Return to footnote 11 referrer

Footnote 12

Includes all cases where English was reported as being spoken at home as much as or more than French, including cases where a language other than English or French was also reported as being spoken at home.

Return to footnote 12 referrer